I exchanged my Bahraini driving license for an Omani driving license a few days ago.
The process is simple and takes only about two hours. You basically need to get a form filled up in Arabic and get the signature and seal of your employer. You need to bring a copy of your residence card, two photographs with blue background, original driving license from GCC country, and a copy of that license and your Debit/Credit card.
I went to the Al Qurm ROP office, and gave the documents to the reception. The person in the reception asked me to go for the eye test. The officer in the eye test section, checks your existing license and tells you if it can be converted or not – after that you do a simple eye test, and get the report.
On returning back to the reception, you get a token to wait in Hall No. 1, where the payment is made and Omani license issued. The officer inside this section checks your license and authorizes the issue of the Omani license. Once it is authorized you pay RO 20 by your credit/debit card and collect your new license.
Your license issued from the other GCC country must be at least 1 year old and valid to be eligible for exchange.
You also get to keep your old license (unlike UAE), which is good.